At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  In the context of this debate, important climate agreements have developed in their pursuit of emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol only required industrialized countries to reduce their emissions, while the Paris Agreement recognized that climate change was a common problem and called on all countries to set emission targets. The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement)  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015.   Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and enhanced pollution reduction initiatives. Indeed, research shows that the cost of climate activity far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States does not meet its climate targets in Paris, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A lack of compliance with the NPNs currently foreseen in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century.
Meanwhile, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – the Paris targets by investing in infrastructure in clean energy and energy efficiency could have great benefits globally – about $19 trillion. „We have the technology and the knowledge to make these emission reductions, but what is missing are policies and regulations strong enough to achieve this,“ Watson said in an interview. „Right now, the world is on a path between 3 and 4 degrees C (5.5 and 7F) by the end of the century. Yes, there is broad consensus within the scientific community, although some deny that climate change is a problem, including politicians in the United States. When negotiating teams meet for international climate talks, „there is less skepticism about science and more disagreement about how to set priorities,“ said David Victor, professor of international relations at the University of California, San Diego.